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THE EFFECTS OF TEACHING TECHNIQUES IN TEACHING ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
1.1 Background of the study
Teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal and Kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers are to apply appropriate teaching technique that best suit specific objectives and level of outcomes. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impact knowledge to the learners compared to student-centered technique. Research on teaching and learning constantly endeavours to examine the extent to which different teaching technique enhance growth in student learning (Hightower, 2011). Quite remarkably, rampant poor academic performance by the majority of students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective teaching technique by teachers to impact knowledge to learner (Adunola, 2011). Effectiveness of teaching technique indicates that the quality of teaching is often reflected on the achievement of learners. According to Ayeni, (2011); teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners to achieve specific outcomes. Adunola (2011), maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching methods that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered, if teaching is to be effective. It is likely true that successful learning depends on various factors other than that of the teacher. The technique that a teacher uses continues to play an important role in students’ learning and in their academic achievement. The challenges that educators face in the 21st century are so diverse that using better teaching methods is more crucial now than ever before.Demonstration method of teaching is one of the many teaching learning style under the investigation or activity based. Demonstration method involves showing by reason or proof, explaining or making clear by use of examples or experiments, it means “to clearly show”. It is a method which is capable of improving learning through its diversity effect activity. Demonstration technique often occurs when students have a hardtime connecting theories to actual practice or when students are unable to understand application of theories. This method enables concepts and processes to be observed directly, which in turn makes learning easier.When teaching Economics in secondary School, teachers are often facing various problems related on how they can make their students understand basic economic phenomena, relevant terms and their application in everyday life. In order to overcome such problems, teachers must discover and apply new teaching techniques which are compatible with the needs, the interests and the abilities of their students. Our proposing method is a combination of teaching through art, cooperative and experiential learning and project method. The proposed technique is based on a research that was carried out in a senior high school and has remarkable results regarding the didactic methodology. The purpose of this paper is to present this innovative technique, to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of students during this teaching process and to examine the extent to which this technique can contribute to the improvement of teaching and learning.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Teachers have the greatest potential to influence the students’ education, while a student achievement is related to teachers’ competence in using different techniques of teaching. Thus, students achieve more when teachers employ systematic teaching procedures that make teaching and learning processes easier. Excellent academic performance by the students is not only attainable but could also be sustained through teacher’s technique of teaching.The incidence of ineffective teaching of Economics in senior secondary school has resulted to poor achievement in both internal and external examinations. Most teacher while teaching do not involve the learners, learners merely absorb what is given to them, this makes them passive and less receptive, it does not encourage investigation and verification of facts, students’ knowledge is limited to what their teacher teach them. Teachers must stimulate, encourage and maintain active participation of students through the selection of appropriate teaching technique.Students’ negative attitudes towards learning may be related to techniques of teaching used. Varying factors ranging from socio-economic background, intelligence, attitudes of students to teaching methods employed by teachers have been attributed to poor achievement. Every teachers’ desire is to make sure that teaching-learning process take place positively in the classroom, this depend on his/her approach towards learning situations. The teacher does not teach the most relevant, meaningful and useful materials for specific students, he must recognize and adopt a good and well-researched technique of teaching that guarantees better understanding and also stimulates and motivate the students.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
1. To ascertain the relation between teaching technique and student academic performance
2. To ascertain the relationship between the use of assignment technique and students’ learning effectiveness in economics.
3. To determine the relationship between the use of questioning technique and the students’ learning effectiveness in learning economics
4. To ascertain whether teachers’ teaching technique affect student academic performance
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: teachers’ teaching technique does not affect student academic performance
H1: teachers’ teaching technique affects student academic performance
H02:there is no relationship between the use of questioning technique and the students’ learning effectiveness in learning economics
H2:there is relationship between the use of questioning technique and the students’ learning effectiveness in learning economics
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is expected that the findings of this study will be of immense benefit not only to the researcher but also to numerous people in the society and in the educational sector. The findings will be of great importance to students, in that; they will be well informed about various teaching techniques, and the effects will be on their academic performance.Findings will be of great importance to educationist both private and public stakeholders, teachers. It will help increase awareness and understanding the use of the most of the teaching technique and provide feedback on the teaching competences in most commonly used teaching methods as a basis for improvement in instructional practice to enhance performance.Curriculum designers, educational planner’s policy makers as well as government need empirical data on the overall teaching method and activity teaching competence of government teachers in senior secondary schools to facilitate proper curriculum policies and programmes for effective teaching and learning.Findings of his study will be of great benefit to school counsellors for proper guidance on effective teaching method to be adopted according to the needs of the students that could positively influence teaching and learning.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STDUDY
The scope of the study covers the effects of teaching techniques in teaching economics in secondary schools. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
TEACHING: Definition of teaching for English Language Learners. : the job or profession of a teacher. : Something that is taught: the ideas and beliefs that are taught by a person, religion, etc
TEACHER:A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone
TECHNIQUE:A way of carrying out a particular task, especially the execution or performance of an artistic work or a scientific procedure.
ECONOMIC:Economics is "a social science concerned chiefly with description and analysis of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services". Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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