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THE INFLUENCE OF SOME SCHOOL FACTORS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOL
The influence of some school factors on academic performance in pre-primary schools in a research work carried out in four (04) selected private Nursery School in Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State. The population for the study were sixty pupils drawn from urban and rural nursery schools. The instrument used in collecting data is item questionnaire for the teachers and 20 achievement test items for the children. 30 teachers and 30 pupils from urban and rural schools. Simple frequency summation, means and percentage statistics were used to analyse the data collected. These findings show that the school factors like facilities for the pupils table and chairs, well lifted classroom, clean and adequate toilet put source of portable water, safe play ground and equipment help to promote good academic performance of pupils in primary schools. The result of the achievement test conducted show that there was a significant difference between the performance of pupils in the school where school factors are favourable than schools were most of the appropriate facilities are not in place.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The school factors, which include the classrooms, teaching method, teacher’s quality, school management, and peers are some of the variables that affect pupils academics achievement (Ajayi, 2001 and Oluchukwu, 2000). Hence, the school factors remains an integral part that should be a studied and well managed to enhanced pupils academic performance.
The influence of school factors on academic performance of pre-primary school pupils in Nigeria has been of much concern to the pare3nts, teachers, and the school management. the quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also kin the effective coordination of the school management.
School factors which include instructional spaces planning, administrative space planning, circulation space planning for conveniences planning, accessories planning, the teachers as well as the pupils themselves are essential in the teaching-learning process. The extent to which pupils learning could be enhanced depends on their location within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effect teaching and learning process and academic performance of the pupils.
Williams, persuade, and Turner (2008), quoting Marsden (2005), asserted that safe and orderly classroom environment (aspect of instructional spaces) and school facilities (accessories) were significantly related to pupil’s academic performance in schools. The three researchers also quoted Glassman (1994), asserting that a comfortable and caring environment among other treatments helped to contribute to pupils academic performance.
The physical characteristic of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, pupils and the learning process poor lighting, noise, high level of carbondioxide in classrooms and in consistent temperatures make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and in effective ventilation systems lead to poor health among pupils as well as teachers, which lead to poor performance and higher absence rates (Frazier 2002 Lyons, 2001; and Ostendorf, 2001). These factors can adversely affect pupils behaviour and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers and poor learning attitude among pupils.
Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on pupil’s ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teaches, combined with frustrating behaviour by pupils including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, create a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lowered teacher enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an effect upon the academic performance of pupils.
Previous studies have investigated the relationship of poor school environment including problems with student teacher ratio, school location, school population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms and inconsistent temperature in the classroom with pupils health problem, pupils behaviour, and pupils achievement (Cranolell & Smaldino, 2000; Davis 2001; Johnson, 2001; Lysons 2001; Moore 2002; Stricherz, 2000; Tanner, 2000). To complement these studies, the present research will examine the afore-mentioned areas of schools environment as they affect pre-primary schools pupils’ performance in Nigerian schools.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Emphasizing the importance and influence of some school factors to pupil’s academic performance, Oluchukwu (2000) asserted that the school environment is a basic factor that affect the academic performance of pupils. He went further to explain that “unless schools are well suited, buildings adequately constructed and equipment adequately utilized and maintained, much teaching and learning may not take place.
The high level of pupils academic performance may not be guaranteed where instructional space such as classrooms and school environment are structurally defective. However, little is known on the influence of the factors on pupils academic performance in an urban city like Ogun State. Therefore this study aims at investigating the influence of some school factors (such as school location, availabilities/conducive classroom class size) on academic performance in selected pre-primary schools.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purposes of this study are:-
1. To examine the relationship between school environment and the pupils academic performance.
2. To examine the impact of school facilities on the performance of pupi8ls in the pre-primary school
3. To examine factors such as class size that have been perceived to promote or inhibit pulps learning in the academic process of pupils in pre-primary school.
4. To investigate the extent to which school location affects the academic achievement of pre-primary school pupils.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions were raised to which answers will be sought in their study:-
i. Is there any relationship between school environment in terms of location and the pupils academic performance?
ii. To what extent do school facilities such as conducive classroom affect pupils performance in pre-primary school?
iii. To what extent does availability of good quality teachers influence the achievement of pre-primary school pupils?
iv. What effect does class size have on the academic performance of pupils in pre-primary school?
v. What in the perception of pre-primary school teaches on the influence of school factors achievement?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators concerning various factors that help pupils in achieving their academic goals. in so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their schools and children which may consequently lead to enhancing students educational outcomes in schools. In addition the fact that this study is conducted in private schools, it share quite a lot similarities with many other counter parts. in this connection this study provides a valuable reference for other schools (both public and private) as regards the school factors that affect the academic performance of pupils in pre-primary schools. The findings of this study would also be a pointer to the government on which school facilities as well as component of the school environment ought to be provided in order to enhance the academic performance of pre-primary school children.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work focuses on the influence of school factors on academic performance of pre-primary school in some selected schools in Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State. This research work is however delimited to five private primary schools within the Local Government Area.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
SCHOOL: A school is an institution designed for the teaching of pupils under the direction of teachers.
SCHOOL FACTORS: A schools physical factor include the equipment and material used to facilitate the teaching and learning process. Examples instructional materials.
PRIVATE SCHOOL: a school established and controlled privately and supported by endowment and tuition.
TEACHER QUALITY: Abilities and competencies of a teacher determined by their qualifications, experience and mode of delivery during the teaching and learning process.
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: Measurement of academic performance and progress of individual pupils. This would be determined in this study by the scores of the pupils on the achievement test constructed by the researcher.
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