Thursday, May 9, 2013

PROJECT MATERIAL IN COMPUTER SCIENCE


NOTE: TO GET THE FULL PROJECT,CALL 08068231953,08168759420
THE FULL PROJECT COSTS N7500 

 PROJECT MATERIAL IN COMPUTER SCIENCE:
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTER BASED IDENTITY-CARD PROCESSING SYSTEM
(A CASE STUDY OF IMT ENUGU)


                                         ABSTRACT

          This project is aimed at improving a long lasting processing system on identity card. It is also aimed at keeping records of all identity card processing with view of modify it into a few Computer system.
          The study covers the area of application entry, record verification list generation, code number and maintenance of the managed information. The new system developed is very easy to use and gives answers to report generation. Problems, which evolved from the existing system as a result of implemented. During the analysis examination of written documents, oral interviews as well as textbooks, journals will be used for data collection and also a source of information. Also, it is expected that a program will be produced in order to help the students process and also document identity cards with references to the rapid growth in the information technology, it is necessary to develop a fully identity cards processing system through this project.    

                                    TABLE OF CONTENTS


Title Page                                                                               
Certification                                                                           
Dedication                                                                              
Acknowledgement                                                                  
Abstract
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE
1.0     Introduction
1.1     Background of study
1.2     Statement of Problem
1.3     Purpose of study
1.4     Significance of study
1.5     Scope of the study
1.6     Limitation of the study
1.7     Assumptions
1.8            Definitions of terms

CHAPTER TWO
2.0            Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE
3.0     Description and Analysis of the existing system
3.1     Organization structure
3.2     Objectives of the existing system
3.3     Input analysis
3.4     Output analysis
3.5     Process analysis
3.6     Information flow diagram
3.7            Problems of the existing system

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0     Design of the new system
4.1     Output specification and design
4.2     Input specification and design
4.3     Procedure chart
4.4     System requirements
4.4.1  Software requirements
4.4.2    Hardware requirements

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0     Implementation of the new system
5.1     Source code/module
5.2     Program flowchart
5.3            Test run

CHAPTER SIX
6.0     Recommendation and Conclusion
6.1     Recommendation
6.2     Conclusion

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE


1.0     INTRODUCTION
1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
          “The traveler has to knock at every alien door to come to his own and one has to wander through all the outer world to come to the inner most at the end” (Tagore…)
          Man as a wanderer, is not settled with what he sees on what surrounds him. Unless he moves round the world knowing fully well that the world is a spherical shaped object. He sis not satisfied with what he has, unless he sees other superior objects on being. Therefore, in a bid to satisfy the mind or conscience on what they desire, men tend to know more as a stronger apart from his country home. The storage after all journey or may be at a later age tries to speak either in writing or orally his adventures either to his descendants or hiss friends, relations and neighbours. New man, (year of publication) says “I may be accused of laying stress on letter things, of being based, the mark of going into impediment or ridiculous details, of sounding my own praise, if giving scandal; but this is a case above all others, in which I am bound to follow my own light and to speak out my heart”.
          Also, man in a bid to create awareness of running for his dear life, paying visits to friends, engagement in business transactions leaves his geographical area, it is necessary to been a mark. Mark her does not really means facial mark rather an identity showing your name, country, every single information about you and also purpose of your visit. This therefore boils down to what we know as identity card.
          The question is “What is identity card” As defined by author surname (year). It is a national document certifying nationality issued by the government of a country, to a citizen intending to travel abroad from the definition, identity card can also be called a true image of an individual, because it tells well about a person coming into a country. Citizens in a country have the right to apply for issuance of an international passport. There is a need for the maintenance and processing of students records in order to maintain current data concerning an individual in the institute of management and technology Enugu, the unit, which takes the responsibility of producing an identity card for student, has many sections.
          The identity card processing unit has different sections such as:
(a)     Registration unit
(b)     Passport section
(c)      Documentation section
(d)     Printing section
REGISTRATION UNIT:      Registration is a process where by student obtain campus form to fill and sign by the head of department to enable the registrar have the information pertaining to each department of the students in Institute of management and technology Enugu.
PASSPORT SECTIONS:      This is the section that takes change of snapping and processing passport photograph of the intending students and staff.
DOCUMENTATION SECTION:  It is section where all necessary particulars about the person to be issued an I.D Card is documented department by department.
PRINTING SECTION:         This is the section that prints out the identity cards.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
          The identity card processing system is not an easy task. The reason is because it involves networking all the computers in that organization and as well as to present forgery and avoid the dangers of duplication of multiple passports for one particular person. The system in question can also depict how lose a tight the security department is change of the passports section.
          Scanning through for a with definite information can be a tedious and time wasting work because of the large volumes of record to be scanned. Also, to change a particular information may be as a result of marriage, change of name and loss of passport in other words known, as update is also a tag of war for the individual in charge. It is also a big task detecting who and who were given or issued with a passport thereby creating space for duplication of passport and for a person. It results to weariness and loss of dedication to duties by the staff.    
 
1.3     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
          The primary purpose of the study is to critically analyze the activities of identify card processing, in other to produce our identity that will process one, to student of the school. Also proffering a lating solution to any problem that will rise.      
 
1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
          This research is geared forwards having a comprehensive review of the manual system for the production of identity card in the institute of management and technology Enugu with a view to replacing it with a computerized system. This work apart from being of great help to academics and future researchers who may wish to go into research or know more about this subject matter will also be of immense benefits in that it will; consideration, to the following:
(i)      Deprive undesirable elements of the opportunity of obtaining I.M.T I.D. cards.
(ii)     Ensure proper accountability of the proceed from I.D. Card, and provide appropriate database about the customers.   
(iii)    Ensure accurate update of the holders record.



1.5     SCOPE OF THE STUDY
          This study caller the activities involved in identity card processing system and its effectiveness in inventory control and account management for profit and loss in Institute of management and technology Enugu.

1.6     IMITATION
          Towards the end of this study, the researcher battled with time due to the fact that examination was in progress but among all odds, the researcher were able to produce a detailed study.

1.7     ASSUMPTION
          It is assumed that, the system is fully implemented; it will prove the activity of the identity card and help in maximization of profit. It will also help the staff to be computer literate.

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS
          As we go into this work, some words will need precise definition to enable the readers assimilate the entire content;
COMPUTER:     An electronic machine capable of accepting data in the form of input, processes it under a set of complete condition, stores information or request and generate result in the form of output.

CITIZEN:  Under the provision of the amended constitution decree N0. 32 of 1974, Citizen is any person who becomes a citizen of any country either by birth, descrendant, registration or nationalization.
PROGRAMMING:      This is the act of designing and testing program logic.

PASSPORT PROCESSINGS:        The procedure involved in processing of passports.
RETRIEVING:   This is the act of getting back information stored in the computer system.

CHAPTER TWO


2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW
          Webster’s Ninth John (1978) defined identity card as a formal document that is used by an authorized official of a country or on of its citizens and usually necessary for exit and re-entry into the country that allows him to travel in a foreign country in accordance with VISA requirement and that request protect him while abroad identity card as defined cannot be acquired from either school or local government. But, there is a special organization that takes charge of both processing and issuance of identity card. The identity card business centre IMT Enugu.
          The organization Act (1985) N0.6. this act aimed at controlling the movement as well as the rules and regulation guiding the organization of IMT for which this act was enacted the act contained various places where cases were dealt.
         
Example in IMT identity card processing. It contained parts like:
Part 1 known as system 1                 -        Passport snapping
Part 11 known as system 11             -        Registration
Part 111 known as system 111         -        Production
Part iv known as system iv               -        Processing
Part v known as system v                 -        Printing
          All these and many more are contained in the various parts of the identity card Act of 1985, many things were justified in order to suit individuals wishing to procure the identity card. The identity card takes the form of a security been issued to an individual for which according to Plack (1979) in his book says that identity card is a mark of identification. And also it rightly identifies the holder whose photograph is placed in the passport. It also contains all necessary information needed to know about a student he also emphasized that the essence of such identification is mainly for security purposes.
          Dan Jouhow (1987) on his book, “Automatic Document and processing” defines document processing as preparation of printed evidence for birth, death, marriage, identification e.t.c These document are processed to be very unified and easily maintained. They are made very official and the mode of insurance is very strict. Dan also stated that the identity requires perfect and very sophisticated touch to protect the integrity of such document, with the introduction of identity. The problem associated with identity card processing has been totally solved.
          Computer processing identity came with adequate and very unique code that is almost impossible to novice (that is those who are not in the line with the service). The computer maintain and access information about identity involves automatically according to predefined program instruction using a defined government criteria, the government reserves the right to examine and monitor persons landing or embarking the country for a given purpose.
          Tony Ikam (1988) According to his book titled identity card processing- effects and benefits “Says that identity represents the image of a nation. Any act whether good or bad exhibited by a holder of international passport is attributed to the holders nation or origin in character and in omission, for this reason a through investigation is taken before the issuance of a passport by the clearance section. good disciplinary behaviour of  foreign in a country attracts business transactions and foreign investment to  both countries.
          Ikam also emphasized that every nation should attend more importance to the mode of issuance and processing of identity since it will contribute to a large extent sanitizing the image holders in a counting outside their own country. Identity card holders should at the same time exhibit good and recommendable character within and outside the nation at all time.
          Okeke (1996) says that during identity processing  everything is put into consideration to check fraud of any form. Any fraud is deleted and cancelled because the identity cards are made unique. It is not always easy, forging of identity and personification in area where adequate attention is given before processing the identity card.







PROJECT MATERIAL IN MNICATIONASS COMMU


 NOTE: TO GET THE FULL PROJECT,CALL 08068231953,08168759420
THE FULL PROJECT COSTS N7500

 PROJECT MATERIAL IN MASS COMMUNICATION:
MASS MEDIA COVERAGE OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT NEWS. A CONTENT ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE GUARDIAN, DAILY CHAMPION, PUNCH AND DAILY STAR NEWSPAPERS.

                                                      ABSTRACT


Suffice it to say that a lot of research has been made in the area of the role of mass media in national development as well as rural development.
      The incontrovertible point has been that there can be no meaningful national development without rural development as an off shoot and most integral part of a country, the need for priority in rural transformation cannot be over emphasized.
      He mass media as a vehicle for information gathering and dissemination has a major role to play in the area of rural development.
      In the light of the above, the researcher choose the topic mass media coverage of rural development news. A content analytical study of the Guardian, Daily Champion, Weekly Star and Punch newspapers.
      This is in view that the finding and conclusions  derived from this study will go a long way to determine the contributions and impact of the nations mass media particularly newspapers in the area of rural development and at the same time make useful suggestion for he attainment of desire bale results in this aspect.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE


INTRODUCTION
1.1  Background of the Study
      To achieve national development, rural development is a necessary step that cannot be jettisoned. The hope of developing Nigeria and all other developing countries in order to have a better tomorrow lies in the development of our rural areas.
      The mass media fill the communication gap between the government and the rural dwellers on one end and the urban and rural populace on the other end.
      With this, the mass media especially community responsible oriented ones, succeed in making the rural dwellers active participants of the government as they become aware of programmes and policies of the government by working towards being benefactors of these policies and programmes.
      Moreso, high coverage or publication of rural development news by mass media especially the newspapers, without any doubt help in speeding up meaningful development in rural communities which will in turn boost the standard of the people.
      With improved standard of living of the rural dwellers, the problem of rural-urban migration would be aborted. When this happen, there will be gross development in the country, a situation that will give room for proper utilization both mineral and human intellectual resources in their different places of existence.
      Observation shows that not much has been done by the government in order to improve the quality of life of rural dwellers when compare to that of the urban populace. This means that much emphasis has been on urban development.
      The mass medial has a vital role to play in rural development through the quality, quality and high level of rural development it covers and disseminate to the public.
      Therefore, it becomes important that the rural areas be given more opportunities in the scheme of information being the food basket of the nation.
      In order to achieve diversification of the economy, development of the rural areas is inevitable. An equitable distribution of wealth and provision of social amenities will help reduce the rate of rural-urban migration.
      It is against this background that the researcher, embarked oon this study – Mass media coverage of rural development news. A content analytical study of the Guardian, Daily Star, Daily Champion and Punch newspapers.

1.2                        State of the Research Problem
This study is geared towards the Nigeria mass media and the extent to which they cover rural development news, with a view of determining the level of commitment of the nation’s press towards rural transformation and emancipation from the shackles of poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, diseases and low standard of living.
      In the absence of community newspaper like the “community concord” purely devoted to the coverage of rural activities, this research work is tasked to ascertain whether the amount and quality or rural news carried by urban mass media especially newspapers are sufficient and capable enough to bring the much desirable development in the rural areas.
      Using four newspapers as a point of reference, the study is set to find out the reasons for the low coverage of rural news by Nigeria newspapers with reference to such factors as the location of the newspaper and ownership.
      The researcher choose the Guardian, Daily Champion and Punch newspapers because they are elitist and widely read and daily Star newspaper because it is a government owned newspaper.
      These problems brought about by the extremely small coverage of rural development news by the Nigerian newspapers is a major concern of this research work.

1.3  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
There has been concentration of development effort in the urban areas of our country at the expense of the rural areas which had always brought about the problems of rural-urban migration because of inadequate or total lack of basic social amenities in the rural areas.
In view of the aforementioned, rural development and diversification of the nation’s economy is topmost in the priority list of government. This is why there have been various grassroots development programmes from both past and present government like Development for Food Road and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI), The Better life for Rural Women Programme, The Family Support Programme, Poverty Alleviation Programmes etc.
      On rural development as a major concern in Nigeria, a media practioner, Nwuneli Onura once said that “a country like Nigeria probably now realized that building sky scrapper and modern express ways and purchasing vast numbers of cars among other things are unholy aspect of development that do not  necessarily change the basic attitude of a significant percentage  of the population towards life”.
      De-emphasizing the importance of communication in social development process, Nwuneli affirmed that “while social changes in desirable social development programmes can easily run into problems if they are not effectively communicated to the people.
      By content analytical study of the coverage of rural development news by three national newspapers, this research work have the purpose of finding the extent to which the mass media notably the newspaper has succeeded or failed in carrying out it’s rural development functions through the quality and quantity of rural news it carries.
      One of the objectives of rekindling and reinforcing the desire for the coverage of rural development news by national dailies is to bear in mind that there are no or very few clearly marked community newspaper that are fully dedicated to the coverage of rural activities and selfless services with a view to bringing about rapid development in all ramifications in the grassroots as it concerns the rural communities.

1.4  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
One of the significance of this work is that it highlights the place of the newspapers is the transformation, mobilization, industrialization and education of the rural dwellers with a view of enhancing their quality of life.
This study offers readers the opportunity to access the level of commitment of Nigeria newspapers in furthering the cause of reral development through full objective reporting of community events, activities, achievements, aspirations, efforts as well as problems.
      It is indeed significant in that it stressed the need for newspapers to use developmental events from rural areas in positions such as front or back pages, these events are mostly horrors, tragedies or some other negative reports as against self-help development projects.
This practice is against the fairness doctrine of the press and stands out as a problem of rural development. Hence, one of the significance of this project work is that it is geared towars attaining balances reporting through equal coverage and treatment of rural development news vis-à-vis urban news. This in turn help bridge the wide communication gap between the government and the rural populace so as to pave way for participatory governance and grassroot development.
      This project work is a guide and mirror to policy makers in terms of designing a suitable editorial policy that will give a newspaper upper hand to give adequate coverage to rural development news.
      Besides, it might be one of the needed step for Nigeria to attain national development as it is geared towards, rural development without which there will be no national development.
      Furthermore, this project work stands out as a reference material for other researchers working on this field or relate communication and development work.
1.5  RESEARCH QUESTIONS
a)     Is there any relationship between ownership and coverage of rural development news?
b)    To what extent does location of a newspaper affect the coverage of rural development news?
c)     Does readership size of a newspaper influence its coverage of rural development news?
d)    Is there any relationship between a newspaper house style or location and its placement of rural development news?
e)     Do national newspapers cover events and activities in urban areas as much as they do in rural areas?

1.6  RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
This research work is based on the following hypothesis. These are:-
H1   Government newspapers give more prominence to rural development news than private owned newspapers.
H0   Government newspapers does not give more prominence to rural development news than private owned newspapers.
H2   Government controlled newspapers carry more of rural development news than private owned newspapers.
H0   Government controlled newspapers does not carry more of rural development news than private owned newspapers.
H3   State based newspapers carry more of rural development news than national newspapers.
H0   State based newspapers does not carry more of rural development news than national newspapers.
H4  That national newspaper most of the times carry non-developmental news of the rural areas e.g drought, diseases outbreak, earthquake etc.
H0       That national newspapers most of the time does not carry non-developmental news of the rural areas.

1.7    CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
RURAL COMMUNITY
Conceptually, rural community according to a newsletter published by the Anambra State Development Authority, focus “a rural community as a unified body of inherited cultural affinity and common socio-economic, political interest based on a common poor social amenities of a state”.
      Operationally, rural community may be viewed as a set of people with the same historical heritage and cultural affinity, exhibiting an awareness of their uniqueness, location, sharing common socio-economic and political interest but with little or no social amenities and basic infrastructures like tarred roads, equipped school, telephone etc.

RURAL DEVELOPMENT
Conceptually, the World Bank defines rural development as a strategy designed to improve the economic and social life of a group of people (rural). It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorest among those who seek a livelihood in the rural areas.
      Operationally, rural development means the conscious, planned and systematic efforts geared towards the transformation or modernization of the rural areas through the provision of basic amenities and public utilities needed for good living as well as their full integration in the scheme of events.

RURAL DEVELOPMENT NEWS:
Conceptually, according to Ducan broadly (1986), a communication scholar, rural development news is the coverage of events by the mass media of rural communities in order to enhance rapid development of these communities.
      Operationally, rural development news takes the form of an accurate and timely account of events aimed at bringing about meaningful economic, industrial, technological, educational, structural and general development in the rural areas including features, pictures , editorials etc.

NEWSPAPERS
Conceptually, according to Nwanze (1999:2), see newspaper as “a mechanically reproduced tabloid, published daily or weekly, accessible to anyone who can afford the cove price and contains a variety of news of public interest as well as marked with a continuity of organization.
      Operationally, newspaper is a publication that is usually printed daily or weekly which report news of current events happing around the world.


MASS MEDIA:
Conceptually, mass media has been perceived essentially as a working group organized around some device for circulating the same message to large numbers of people – Hall (1981).
      Operationally, mass media are modern channels of mass communication used to disseminate news and information to very diverse cum large numbers of people simultaneously.

DEVELOPMENT
Conceptually, development is the attainment of a meaningful degree of mental alertness and the sophistication of human faculties to the level the individual in society cannot only reason well but also, adopt a logical approach to issues arising from human society.
      Operationally, development means the provision of tangible social infrastructure like roads, hospitals, schools, decent pipeborne water etc.



ASSUMPTIONS
This project work is carried out based on certain assumptions. Some of these assumptions are already stated as part of the hypothesis.
      However, this project work is under the assumption that rural development news from rural communities is not getting enough coverage as it should from newspapers (mass media).
      In addition, the fact still remains that both private and government owned newspapers do not place rural development news at positions like front or back pages of the newspapers, rather they report more on “negative” news from rural areas so as to capture more of the available markets audience.

1.1  LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is limited to four Nigeria newspapers; the Guardian, Daily Star, Daily Champion and Punch newspapers. In the process of this research work, there were some limitations and constrains. The greatest being the challenges of having to combine academic   work with this research, considering the short time for this semester as mapped out by the school’s administration.
      Apart from the time constraint, it was a great challenge gathering the four newspaper for content analytical study especially in the case of Daily Star in Enugu where very old editions has to be looked for since the paper is no longer producing on a daily basis.