FARMERS’ COPING STRATEGIES TO EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATERMELON PRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
Some evidence show that agriculture will be more affected by climate change in Africa than in other regions of the world (Sultan and Gaetani, 2016; Knox et al., 2012; Roudier et al., 2011, Rippke et al., 2016). Smallholder agriculture, the most widespread across Africa, has long been characterised by adaptive and flexible strategies to reduce vulnerability to climate natural variability and soil depletion (Adger et al., 2003, Tschakert, 2007; Eriksen et al., 2008; Thomas et al., 2007). African farmers, particularly in dry land areas, have developed both on- and off-farm adaptation strategies in response to these risks. These are based on four principles: (i) diversification (crops and farming/non-farming activities); (ii) association (different crops on the same field, mixed crop-livestock farming, cultivated/natural spaces); (iii) intensification (labour resources and soil fertility); and (iv) species selection (based on natural conditions and population needs) (Agrawal, 2010). These adaptative strategies have aimed to offset the negative impacts of natural climatic variations and shocks, including droughts, and sustain the agroecosystem, whenever possible, without changing its fundamental attributes (Malik et al., 2010; Parry et al., 2007; Fankhauser et al., 1999).
In the context of climate change in Sahel, these adaptations often had limited impacts and mostly amounted to survival strategies for farmers with no possibility of increased agricultural production. When facing climate-related shocks, resource-poor farmers adopt erosive coping strategies for agriculture, whose long-term impacts are negative on household productivity (Kates et al., 2012; Rickards and Howden, 2012), and/or develop migration strategies (Suhrke, 1994; Findley, 1994; Henry et al., 2004; Lalou and Delaunay, 2017). Thus, if climate shocks require agricultural adaptation strategies from African smallholder farmers, they hinder these adaptations rather than favour them. Climate change can also create agricultural opportunities and farmers can develop strategies to take advantage of them (IPCC, 2014). Unlike shocks, climatic opportunities, such as a rise in rainfall, are likely to increase available natural resources without diminishing household economic capacities. Hence, the question raised in this study is to determine whether climate opportunity is likely to facilitate adaptation of vulnerable agrarian societies.
1.2 Statement of the problem
There may have been previous researches in this subject. This work gives further explanations and analysis in farmers’ coping strategies to effect of climate change on watermelon production in bursari, yobe state
1.3 Objectives of the study
1. To understand the impact of coping strategies employed by farmers to effect climate change on watermelon
2. To understand the relationship between farmers’ coping strategies and climate change on water melon
1.4 Research questions
1.What is the impact of coping strategies employed by farmers to effect climate change on watermelon
2 What is the relationship between farmers’ coping strategies and climate change on water melon
1.5 Research hypothesis
H0: There is no relationship between farmers’ coping strategies and climate change on water melon
H1: There is a relationship between farmers’ coping strategies and climate change on water melon