CHILD EDUCATION THROUGH BARNEY AND FRIENDS EPISODE
1.1 Background of the study
Why do children watch television? According to Schramm et.al., (1961), the first reason is the existence of passive enjoyment which entertains the children themselves. Secondly, the increase of knowledge from the television without the need to search for it and thirdly, the function of television itself as a social purpose in accordance with knowledge which has been available on television that can serve as a topic for communication and the reason for being around people. According to Hardenbergh (2009), nowadays people are keen to watch television because of television itself which creates images that attract attention and because of audio effects which stimulate the eyes to keep watching. Meanwhile there is an increase in channels through transmission devices such as cable and satellite and also transfer from analog to digital transmission.
According to Piaget (1952), children under two in sensory stage level point out that senses and action show to children that objects and images on television feel different from those experienced in real life, Lemish (2007). During this stage also, the children in early childhood are acquiring language and they will develop representational thinking skills which means allowing the children to talk about and express their experiences of television.
Television is a world full of images. Various programmes are designed specifically for children whether it is educational pogramme or not and this programme were keeping pace with world developments. Early childhood are interested in television programme that give them entertainment and joyful. Educational pogrammes like Sesame Street, Barney and Friends, Teletubies, Blue Clues, and others are one of the examples that children among early childhood like to watch. However, non-educational television programme also aired on tv as a programme that can entertain children like cartoons. According to Woodard and Gridina (2000), Barney and Friends was on number five on top ten last co-viewed shows and also on most encouraged programme and channels by parents.
Educational toys (sometimes called "instructive toys") are objects of play, generally designed for children, which are expected to stimulate learning. They are often intended to meet an educational purpose such as helping a child develop a particular skill or teaching a child about a particular subject. They often simplify, miniaturize, or model activities and objects used by adults.
Although children are constantly interacting with and learning about the world, many of the objects they interact with and learn from are not toys. Toys are generally considered to be specifically built for children's use. A child might play with and learn from a rock or a stick, but it would not be considered an educational toy because 1) it is a natural object, not a designed one, and 2) it has no expected educational purpose.
The difference lies in perception or reality of the toy's intention and value. An educational toy is expected to educate. It is expected to instruct, promote intellectuality, emotional or physical development. An educational toy should teach a child about a particular subject or help a child develop a particular skill. More toys are designed with the child's education and development in mind today than ever before.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Children come into the world knowing nothing, and actively construct knowledge through manipulating and exploring their world. Today, as we can see, television plays an important role in early children’s lives and socialization. Television is the national hearth. In some homes it is a steady backdrop from morning till night. Many families arrange their schedules, their meals, their conversation, and even their furniture around the television set. Children will learn and explore the world through television. Television can also be considered as taking over the care of the early child. This is because according to Singer and Singer (2001), in early childhood, children spend more than three hours per day watching television.
Hundreds of studies have shown that violent television programmes contribute to aggressive behavior and negative impact among viewers. Not all television programmes are the same and they do not all produce the same impact among viewers. Same as educational programmes and non-educational programme that children watch will have a different impact on children among early childhood. But if we believe that children can learn negative lessons from television, then it stands to reason that they can learn positive lessons, too. From the above findings, it is important that children should watch programmes which stimulate their overall development since they are spending long hours in front of television. So it is necessary to ascertain that programmers especially of educational television programmes include elements which facilitate their development in cognitive, social and academic improvement.
Studies have reported that educational television programmes are improving the cognitive development of children. Development is changing qualitatively which is the change that cannot be measured in quantity but shows different character from the previous stages (Mohd Sharani Ahmad, 2004). The process of children’s cognitive development is more closely related to surrounding factors. For normal children, their speaking skill is closely related to their hearing (Wan Asma Wan Ismail, 2002). Children are attracted to sounds. Many children will be attracted to watch Barney and Friends when they hear the songs and music in the programme.
Therefore, in this aspect when children are exposed to a variety of television programmes, especially like Barney and Friends programme, it will most probably influence the growth of their cognitive. However, this is yet to be proven. Furthermore, there is still not much information pertaining to the topic discussed. Realizing the concerns over television’s potential contribution to a broad range of positive or negative impact on children’s early childhood, a study is needed to answer several related research problems, namely:
(i) Does watching Barney and Friends programme have significant impact between two groups at pre assessment on cognitive development among early childhood?
(ii) Does watching Barney and Friends programme have significant impact between two groups at post assessment on cognitive development among early childhood?
Children the world over, from those living with the most sophisticated families in big cities to those living in remote villages in developing countries, spend much time 'just playing.' Of course, only grown-ups would put the word 'just' in the previous sentence, implying that somehow play is an indulgence only the very young are entitled to and that nothing much is happening when children play.
1.3 Objectives of the study
1. 1. To examine the impact of Barney and Friends programme between two groups at pre assessment on cognitive development among early childhood.
2. 2. To examine the impact of Barney and Friends programme between two groups at post assessment on cognitive development among early childhood.
1.4 Research questions
4. 1. What is the impact of Barney and Friends programme between two groups at pre assessment on cognitive development among early childhood.
5. 2. What is the impact of Barney and Friends programme between two groups at post assessment on cognitive development among early childhood.
1.5 Research hypothesis
H0: There is no relationship between toys and child education
H1: There is a relationship between toys and child education
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