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ASSESSMENT OF THE SPATIAL DIFFUSSION OF POULTRY FARMS AND ITS IMPACT TO THE PEOPLE OF KUJE

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ASSESSMENT OF THE SPATIAL DIFFUSSION OF POULTRY FARMS AND ITS IMPACT TO THE PEOPLE OF KUJE

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1         BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Poultry generally is referred to all domestic birds raised by man for the production of eggs, meat and other benefits for human consumption. The domestic birds include fowl ducks, turkey, guinea fowl and geese., poultry products have been found to have the highest protein concentrate of about 20.5% relative to others success of protein (animals) and has the shortest production cycle of all animals.

 

Production cycle involves all the activities in the rearing of livestock from day old to maturity. For example, to achieve a ten-fold increase in the body weight in relation to weight at bird, Williamson and Payne (1978) outlined that it takes 25 days in broiler, 48 days in piglets, 250 days in caves and 170 days in sheep.

 

The rearing of pigs, cattle’s and goats however requires extensive kind more than poultry where more units of production can be achieved from a given space compared to the farmer. These advantages are perhaps the cause of a higher turnover in poultry production at reasonably short period of time in this work more emphasis shall be made specifically to the domestic fowl, which are the major birds for commercial and nutritional importance in Ikpoba Okha Local Government of Edo State.  Poultry rearing have been in practice in Ikpoba Okha for a long time. The traditional motive varies from hobby to the use of fowl and eggs as food. Apart from the important roles that the fowl play in the traditional workshop of duties in many parts of the states, some communities use it as gift to their neighbours in appreciation of a good deed and as a mark of solidarity.

 

The traditional poultry keeping is generally subsistence in outlook without the use of modern scientific methods. Hence the birds under this system are poorly cared for and they are characterized by slow growth rate, poor feed utilization and low productivity. The birds are also exposed to high mortality rate as a result of diseases, pest and bad weather conditions.

 

However, inspite of the popularity of commercial poultry keeping, the subsistence and the small-scale units are still prevalent all over the place especially in the villages. Although the commercially oriented poultry units are abundant all over the state with varying modern scientific approach to production poultry output continues to be inadequate with prices above the reach of the common man.

 

This paper will therefore focus attention on the problems and prospect of poultry production in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo state.

 

1.2         STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

In Nigeria, the business of poultry farming is concentrated in the hands of few individual partly because of the complex problems such as finance and climatic condition while others are problem of poultry processing and storage facility.

 

In Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, there had been retrogression in poultry production due to illiteracy in the maintenance of records. Hence maintenance of record helps the farmer to determine the process of retrogressing nature of the farm. Besides, it helps in making future project, planning and programming in poultry industry. Most farmers either as a result of illiteracy, training or otherwise are unable to keep records. The result is that most extension officers are unable to help them out of their problems due to lack of information.

 

1.3         PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

 

The purpose of this study is to investigate the problems encountered by poultry farmers in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area and suggest solutions to them.

 

1.4         STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

 

The ultimate goal of the government or individuals engaged in poultry production today is to achieve a high standard of production with a view of increasing animal products for the ever-increasing populace.

 

In an attempt to producer enough poultry products {meat and eggs} several problems and constrains have been identified. Some of these problems include finance, quality feeds, disease problems and poor housing condition.

 

1.5         SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 

This research work will focus attention to cover Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo state. The information obtained here will only strictly apply to Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area but may be generalized to other parts of the state with similar problems and prospects of rearing poultry. Also efforts would be made to cover as much of the local government area as possible.

 

1.6         SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

 

It is hoped that the recommendation based on the findings of the study would be of tremendous benefit to the poultry producers, the consumers of poultry products alike and the student’s researchers.

 

It is anticipated that inexperienced poultry farmers can from this study identify as well as provide them with the basic information needed to raise and manage poultry successfully. Top the consumers, an increase in poultry products means meeting their eggs and poultry meat needs.

 

It is believed that the research findings would help students who intend to research in a similar topic to have ideas on what the topic is all about and also aid students in the area of further studies.

 

1.7         DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

1.            Poultry: This is the term used for all domesticated birds such as chicks, ducks, turkey, guinea fowl etc.

 

2.            Broiler: These are chickens raised for meat production.

 

3.            Layers: layers refer to hens that are kept for egg production.

 

4.            Battery cage system: This is a system of poultry keeping where the birds are confined in a specially designed house.

 

5.            Deep litter system: This is a system where the birds are kept in a permanent house.

 

6.            Free-range system: This is where birds are allowed to move freely on the range and feed themselves.

 

7.            Hatchery: This is an aspect of poultry where day old chicks are produced mainly by artificial incubation.

 

8.            Veterinary: A surgeon concerned with diseases of animals and domestic animals.

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