FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ATTITUDE OF WOMEN OF TOWARD FAMILY PLANNING IN NIGERIA
1.1 Background of the Study
There are many variables that determine the attitude of woman of childbearing age toward family planning; such variables could be viewed from Socio-economic factor, Cultural Factor Community norms, Religious affiliation, Gender role and Effectiveness of the services.Family planning is the technique that enables couples to determine when to have baby. There are a numbers of available family planning techniques (elaitan, 2011).Techniques commonly used include Oral pills, Depo Provera, Noristerat, IUCD, Condoms, Implant, and Sterilization etc.Family planning also known as birth control is most usually applied to couples who wish to limit the numbers of children they have and to control the timing of pregnancy (spacing children).
Family planning is when and how many children to have and the use of birth control techniques to implement such plans, so that they can give utmost care to the children, financially, psychologically and socially (United States Department of Agriculture, 2007). According to WHO, (2004) family planning is a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily, upon the basis of knowledge, attitudes and responsible decision by individuals and couples in order to promote the health and welfare of family groups and thus contribute effectively to the social development of aCountry.
However, family planning is usually used as a synonym for child spacing birth control. Family planning may encompass sterilization as well as pregnancy termination. It also includes raising a child with methods that require significant, amount of resources namely: time, social, financial and environment. Family planning measures are designed to regulate the number and spacing of children, within a family, largely to curb population growth, and ensure each family has access to limitedresources.
The concept of women of childbearing age toward family planning can be applied to a wide range of sexual and reproductive health decision. It focuses on whether to seek, to avoid pregnancy, whether to space and time one’s childbearing, whether to use contraception, what family methods to be used, and whether or when to continue or switch methods in family planning.
The attitude of women of childbearing age toward family planning focuses on the individual; however it also influences a range of outside factors such as: Social economic and Cultural norms, Gender roles, Social networks, Religiousand Local beliefs (Bosveld 2000).
To a large extent, these community norms determine individual childbearing preferences and sexual reproductive behaviour. It is usually though that community and culture affect a person attitude toward family planning desire for sex of children pressures to have children and whether or not family planning accords with customs and religious beliefs.
It has been observed that many couples, especially women who are directly exposed to risk of unwanted pregnancy, do not utilized available family planning services. Thus, the attitude of women toward family planning is not encouraging; it is this underutilization of family planning that the researcher delved to find out what may be responsible for the attitude of women of childbearing age toward family planning.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Reduction in population growth is believed to improve in country’s prospects for economic development which in turn is believed to enhance a county’s ability to improve the lives of the citizens. In the case of Nigeria, we can see the rapid growth of population according to (census 2006) population figure. There is no such socio-economic issue that is grave and pressing than that of the population growth.
Thus, to save the country from such grave problem it is essential that the population growth should be planned and well checked.The increasing growth of Nigerian population without a commensurate rate of economic development has become a serious problem requiring urgent solution.
Despite the population attention family planning has gained and it’s important to the society they are still underutilized. It is believed as observed by scholars that certain variables influence the attitude of citizens of childbearing age toward family planning services utilization. This study thus focuses attention on investigating the factor that influences the attitude of women of childbearing age toward family planning in Calabar Metropolis.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
Generally, the purpose of the study is to investigate the factors influencing attitude of women of childbearing age toward family planning in Calabar municipality, the study specifically investigated:
1. Deposition of women of childbearing age toward family planning in Calabar metropolis.
2. The influence of socio-economic status on the attitude of women toward family planning.
3. Whether religious affiliation influence attitude of women toward family planning.
4. The influence of cultural norms on attitude of women towards family planning
5. Whether educational status affects attitude of women of childbearing age toward family planning.
1.4 Research Question
The study provided answers to the following questions:
1. What is the disposition of women of childbearing age toward family planning in Calabar metropolis?
2. To what extent does socio-economic status influence attitude of women of childbearing age toward family planning?
3. How does religious affiliation influence attitude of women of childbearing age toward family planning
4. To what extent dose cultural norms influence attitude of women of child bearing age toward family planning.
5. How does educational status affect attitude of women of childbearing age toward family planning in Calabar metropolis?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Based on the objective of the study, the following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.
1. Disposition of women of childbearing age toward family planning is significantly low in Calabar metropolis.
2. Socio-economic status would not significantly influence attitude of women of childbearing age toward family planning.
3. Religious affiliation would not have any significant influence the attitude of women of childbearing age toward family planning.
4. There would be no significant influence of cultural norms on attitude of women of child bearing age toward family planning.
5. Educational status of women, of child bearing age would not significantly influence their attitude toward family planning.
6. Significance of study
The result of this study as envisaged will be of great assistance to women of child bearing age. Who are at the receiving end of consequences of using contraception or no utilization of available services?
This research work will also be of help to currently married women and their partners who have no knowledge about family planning.
It will help them to equipped with skill on how to avoid unwanted pregnancy.
It may also give an insight on how they could make their choice on different family planning methods. In addition, it will foster their acceptance of family planning since both the modern and the traditional methods of family planning are provided.The study will create awareness and exposure on the need of child spacing and the number of children they can care for in terms of education among parents.
The study will also be significant to policy formulators and executors regarding the effective use of family planning.Finally, the research will be significant to reproductive health researchers as it may serve as a reference material.
1.7. Delimitation of the study
This study investigated the factors influencing the disposition of women toward family planning in Calabar metropolis. The study did not include their male counterparts. The study investigated selected variable such as: socio-economic status, religious affiliation, cultural norms and effect of educational status, besides the attitude of these women toward family planning.
1.8. Limitation of the study
This study was limited by certain factors which limit the smooth conduct of the study.These factors include:
Lack fund to carryout elaborate research work.
Uncooperative attitude willingness of some people to give responds consistently to the research instrument.
The time gap for the completion of this research was also short. The researcher had to work even at odd hours in order to completethe research on time
1. 9 Definition of Terms
The following key terms have been defined for classification.
1. Family planning: It is the decision made by a couple to bear the number of children they will be able to care for and to have them.
2. Attitude: This refers to the behaviour of women toward family planning neither positive nor negative which influence theirusage.
3. Childbearing Age: This means the period women’s menstruation starts to the period of puberty to menopause.
4. Knowledge: It refers to the degree of awareness and understanding of family planning and available family planning services.
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