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EVALUATION OF CURRENT TECHNIQUES IN DIAGNOSES OF HUMAN IMMUNODAFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

 

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EVALUATON OF CURRENT TECHNIQUES IN DIAGNOSES OF HUMAN IMMUNODAFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

 

ABSTRACT

A study was carried to ascertain the potency of some techniques used in diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV).  Two hundred and five samples (203) were collected from the patients from the university of Nigerian teaching hospital and was analysed using Elisa kit, which has the ability to detect antibodies and antigens in the patients serum, the Western blots were used as the confirmatory test, to the Elisa test, In case where there is false positive of Elisa test, it is specific and sensitive, Radioimmunoasay looks for the antigens which are radioactively label.  The patients result shows that 154 patients out of the 205 diagnosed were negative and only 51 patients were positive.  The Elisa kit were best used because of  its sensitivity and specificity.  It is very cheap and can be easily seen in the market, unlike the Radiommunoassay which are rare and very expensive to be used.

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLE

 

Table   1:         Number of both sexes, age and the results of patience
diagnosed.

Table 2:      Number of both positive and negative Results

 

Table 3:       Numbers of negative results with their percentage

 

Table 4:       Number of negative results with their percentage

 

Table 5:       Rate of infection among the study group

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page                                                                               

Certification                                                                                    

Acknowledgment                                                                    

Dedication                                                                              

Abstract                                                                                  

List of tables                  

                                      

CHAPTER ONE                                                            

1.0     Introduction                                                                  

1.1     Hypothesis                                                                    

1.2     Aims and Objectives                                                      

1.3     Statement of problem                                                    

1.4     Limitation of study

                                      

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature review                                                           

2.1     Pathogenesis of HIV infection                                        

2.2     Epidemiology of HIV                                                    

2.3     Transmission of HIV infection                                       

2.4     Viral replication of HIV                                                 

2.5     Symptoms of HIV infection                                           

2.6     Life cycle of HIV                                                           

2.7     Facts about HIV/AIDS

                                      

CHAPTER THREE                                 

3.0     Materials and Method                                                    

3.1     Current  diagnosis of HIV infection                                

3.2     Laboratory diagnosis                                                     

3.3     Radiomminoassay                                                         

3.4     Enzymes Linked immunosorbentassay Elisa                   

3.5     Western blot

 

 

                                               

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Results                                                                          

5.0     Discussion and conclusion                                             

References                                                                     

Appendices                                                          

 

 

 

 
 
CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

The Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a condition that slowly destroys the body Immune system and makes the body vulnerable to infections.  The virus is typically called Human Immunodeficiency  virus (HIV) because it destroys the Immune system of the individual which is responsible for protecting the individual from disease.  The immunodeficiency associated with, HIV infection can be enormous, and it is the major cause of death, due to the disfucntion of immune system.  The problem with AIDS is , sits neurological dementia complex.  HIV is a lentivirus, a subgroup of retrovirus.  The  family of virus is known for  lafency, persistent viremia, infection of the nervous system and weak hot immune system.  Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is small ultra-microscopic organism that infect living things and uses them to make copies of itself when one’s Immune system is damaged by HIV, AIDS take place (Gallants, 1999).

HIV was first recognized in 1981 in Homosexual men in New York city.  In the united states the HIV is now known to have originated from chimpanzees, transmission from chimps to human.  Initially, there was wild speculation about what might be the cause of AIDs, but in 1982, the centre for disease control had convincing epidermological evidence that AIDS was caused by a new infectious agents.

Dulbecco et-al (1983, located small quantities of the new virus named Lymphademopalty virus (LAN) but enough to be used an antigenina blood test which showed that AIDS patients were infected with the virus.  WHO, (19097), responded that the number of patients living with AIDS has escaculated, a figure of 9000 was confirmed by may 1997.  In African AIDs was first responded in 1982.  In Nigerian it was first responded in 1986, among commercial sex workers in Lagos and calabar.  In 2003 the seroprevalence has been on the increase, despite the comprehensive and successful prevention effort in many part of the would, 4. 1 million new HIV infection was expected to have occurs  In 2003 alone, which could have been contributed by an estimated 9,020 to 10,000 infection per day.

 Currently, the health problem in Nigerian considering reports from various hospitals particularly, the tertiary hospitals, place  AIDS infections in Nigerian at a very serious state.  the potential and propensity for widespread is enormous and the debilitating and negative effect n the economy, the population category affected the working class and the dependents which constitute the penultimate individuals to the working class.  HIV infections in this direction and orientation should be healed as a national emergency in Nigeria.

Meanwhile, Dr.  Robert Gallo’s laboratory begin recovering a virus from AIDS patient, and reported the finding in the science journal.  A  number of these vinal isolated was introduced together into continuous cell cultures to see if a strain of the virus could replicate in the cells one did replicates and Gallo’s named the virus HILV. III because of the resemblance to two human T-lymphotropic viruses.  (Neser, 2001).

By 2004, it was shown that many esymtomatic people  was infected with virus and could transmits it and that the epidemic was far more extensive than previously suspected.  Blood test was generally available for routine testing to donate blood.  Thus markedly improving the safety of blood transfusion and products prepared from pooled blood (peiperls, 1995)

 

1.1     Hypothesis

H.O:  There is significant difference in the result of Westernblots (WB), Enzymes Linked Immuno (Elisa) and Radiommuneoassay kit among HIV carriers.

HI:    There is no significant difference in the result of  Enzymes linked – immurosorbentassay (Elise), Western blots (WB), and Radommunoasay kit (RIA) among HIV carriers.

 

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

To evalulate the current techniques used in the diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

To help recommend the best and most reliable one essaying HIV

 

 

 

1.3     Statement of problems

The major problem with HIV/AIDs in developing would has been the failure to set realistic priorities with respect to both research and control.

As  clinical diagnosis fail to effectively by emphasis on the virus attack is they are increasing case on HIV infection.  Some specific techniques are use for the diagnosis of the HIV infection.

 

1.4     Limitation of the study

this work is carried out in university of Nigeria Teaching hospital Enugu (UNTH).  There is lack of finance in the completion of the project work, lack of the project work, lack of the availability of time also reduce the period of time used.

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