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EVALUATON OF CURRENT TECHNIQUES IN DIAGNOSES OF HUMAN IMMUNODAFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)
A study was carried to ascertain the potency of some techniques used in diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Two hundred and five samples (203) were collected from the patients from the university of Nigerian teaching hospital and was analysed using Elisa kit, which has the ability to detect antibodies and antigens in the patients serum, the Western blots were used as the confirmatory test, to the Elisa test, In case where there is false positive of Elisa test, it is specific and sensitive, Radioimmunoasay looks for the antigens which are radioactively label. The patients result shows that 154 patients out of the 205 diagnosed were negative and only 51 patients were positive. The Elisa kit were best used because of its sensitivity and specificity. It is very cheap and can be easily seen in the market, unlike the Radiommunoassay which are rare and very expensive to be used.
LIST OF TABLE
Table 1: Number of both sexes, age and the results of patience
Table 2: Number of both positive and negative Results
Table 3: Numbers of negative results with their percentage
Table 4: Number of negative results with their percentage
Table 5: Rate of infection among the study group
TABLE OF CONTENT
List of tables
1.2 Aims and Objectives
1.3 Statement of problem
1.4 Limitation of study
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Pathogenesis of HIV infection
2.2 Epidemiology of HIV
2.3 Transmission of HIV infection
2.4 Viral replication of HIV
2.5 Symptoms of HIV infection
2.6 Life cycle of HIV
2.7 Facts about HIV/AIDS
3.0 Materials and Method
3.1 Current diagnosis of HIV infection
3.2 Laboratory diagnosis
3.4 Enzymes Linked immunosorbentassay Elisa
3.5 Western blot
5.0 Discussion and conclusion
The Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a condition that slowly destroys the body Immune system and makes the body vulnerable to infections. The virus is typically called Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because it destroys the Immune system of the individual which is responsible for protecting the individual from disease. The immunodeficiency associated with, HIV infection can be enormous, and it is the major cause of death, due to the disfucntion of immune system. The problem with AIDS is , sits neurological dementia complex. HIV is a lentivirus, a subgroup of retrovirus. The family of virus is known for lafency, persistent viremia, infection of the nervous system and weak hot immune system. Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is small ultra-microscopic organism that infect living things and uses them to make copies of itself when one’s Immune system is damaged by HIV, AIDS take place (Gallants, 1999).
HIV was first
recognized in 1981 in Homosexual men in
Dulbecco et-al (1983, located small quantities of the new virus
named Lymphademopalty virus (LAN) but enough to be used an antigenina blood
test which showed that AIDS patients were infected with the virus. WHO, (19097), responded that the number of
patients living with AIDS has escaculated, a figure of 9000 was confirmed by
may 1997. In African AIDs was first
responded in 1982. In Nigerian it was
first responded in 1986, among commercial sex workers in
Currently, the health problem in Nigerian
considering reports from various hospitals particularly, the tertiary hospitals,
place AIDS infections in Nigerian at a
very serious state. the potential and
propensity for widespread is enormous and the debilitating and negative effect
n the economy, the population category affected the working class and the
dependents which constitute the penultimate individuals to the working
class. HIV infections in this direction
and orientation should be healed as a national emergency in
Meanwhile, Dr. Robert Gallo’s laboratory begin recovering a virus from AIDS patient, and reported the finding in the science journal. A number of these vinal isolated was introduced together into continuous cell cultures to see if a strain of the virus could replicate in the cells one did replicates and Gallo’s named the virus HILV. III because of the resemblance to two human T-lymphotropic viruses. (Neser, 2001).
By 2004, it was shown that many esymtomatic people was infected with virus and could transmits it and that the epidemic was far more extensive than previously suspected. Blood test was generally available for routine testing to donate blood. Thus markedly improving the safety of blood transfusion and products prepared from pooled blood (peiperls, 1995)
H.O: There is significant difference in the result of Westernblots (WB), Enzymes Linked Immuno (Elisa) and Radiommuneoassay kit among HIV carriers.
HI: There is no significant difference in the result of Enzymes linked – immurosorbentassay (Elise), Western blots (WB), and Radommunoasay kit (RIA) among HIV carriers.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
To evalulate the current techniques used in the diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
To help recommend the best and most reliable one essaying HIV
1.3 Statement of problems
The major problem with HIV/AIDs in developing would has been the failure to set realistic priorities with respect to both research and control.
As clinical diagnosis fail to effectively by emphasis on the virus attack is they are increasing case on HIV infection. Some specific techniques are use for the diagnosis of the HIV infection.
1.4 Limitation of the study
work is carried out in
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